The Monument stands in Monument Street off fish Fish Street Hill in the City of London. It was built between 1671 and 1677 to commemorate the Great Fire of London and to celebrate the rebulding of the City.
The fire began in a baker's house in Pudding Lane on Sunday 2nd of September 1666 and was finally extinguished on Wednesday 5th of September, after detroying the greater part of the City. Although there was little loss of life, the fire brought all activity to a halt, having consumned or severly damaged thousands of houses, hundreds of streets, the cities gates, public buildings, churches and St Paul's Cathedral. The only buildings to survive in part were those built of stone, like St Paul's and the Guild Hall.
As part of the rebuilding, it was decided to erect a permanent memorial of the Great Fire near the place where it began. Sir Christopher Wren, surveyor General to King Charles II and architect of St Paul's Cathedral, and his friend and colleague, Dr Robert Hooke, provided a design for a colossal doric column in the anique tradition. They drew up plans for a column containing a cantilevered stone staircase of 311 steps leading to a viewing platform. This was surmounted by a drum and a copper urn from which flames emerged, symbolising the Great Fire. The Monument, as is came to be called was 62 metres high - the exact distance between it and the site in Pudding Lane where the fire began.
Today, the Monument welcomes visitors to climb the steps and admire the view. However the flames from the urn are no longer lit. It is an ongoing reminder of how London was rebuilt.
Underground: Monument on the Northern, District and Circle lines or Bank on the Central line.
Bus Routes: 15,17,21,35,40,43,47,48,133,141,149,344